But their promise hinges on potential breakthroughs in electrochemistry. Newer battery chemistries have problems to overcome. Sodium-ion batteries don’t yet store enough energy, while sulfur cells tend to corrode quickly and don’t last long.

Asian battery giants are also working on new chemistries. China’s CATL has said it plans to begin producing sodium ion cells in 2023. Korea’s LG Energy Solution aims to start making lithium-sulfur cells by 2025.